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Business Spotlight: Innovations beside You 2 – Long-Term Teaming, Collaboration and the Entrepreneurial Spirit & 4 Specific Examples of High-Tech Innovation and Industrial Success

Long-Term Teaming, Collaboration and the Entrepreneurial Spirit & 4 Specific Examples of High-Tech Innovation and Industrial Success - Engineering from Penn State to Johns Hopkins / Bell Laboratories, east coast, and from National Laboratories to Cadwell Laboratories, west coast, we always met and experienced the high-tech innovation and industrial success stories including long-term teaming, collaboration and the Entrepreneurial spirit. Innovations beside you! Made Our Lives Better!

1.Robert E. “Bob” Newnham, L. Eric Cross, and Cardiology Ultrasound (Echocardiography, ECHO)

The 2004 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Electrical Engineering is awarded to Dr. Robert E. Newnham, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, for his invention of multiphase piezoelectric transducers and their spatial architecture, which revolutionized the field of acoustic imaging. The electroceramic-polymeric composite piezoelectric transducers revolutionized the quality of ultrasound images in cardiology (diagnosing heart disease), obstetrics, and underwater sonar. Every major ultrasonics manufacturer in the world including several in central Pennsylvania use composite transducers based on his designs. His miniature flextensional transducers for hydrophone towed arrays is one Penn State’s most successful patents. They are widely used in underwater oil explorations and geophysical research. The Franklin Institute’s awards date to 1824. Laureates have included Albert Einstein, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, Pierre and Marie Curie, and the Wright brothers.

A Long Collaboration of Materials and Electrical Engineering - During the past forty years, Newnham and his long-time colleague Dr. L. Eric Cross, who is Evan Pugh Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, 2010 Von Hippel Award Recipient, the Materials Research Society's highest honor, built up one of the largest ferroelectrics research programs in the world. Together, they pioneered a number of new piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials for use as sensors, actuators, and capacitors. They were the first to carry out a complete classification of primary and secondary ferroics with examples of each. "Bob is very creative," says Professor Cross. "He can look at the structure of a crystal and tell you where the 3-folds and the 4-folds will be." “He first suggested the concept of composite connectivity. Even complex composite connectivity, try a well-developed ability to convey complex phenomena in a straightforward manner without diluting the fundamental responsible.” Cross and Newnham have collaborated since 1966, when Prof. Newnham returned to Penn State after receiving a second Ph.D., at Cambridge, followed by several years as a research scientist at MIT, working with Arthur von Hippel on the molecular structure of materials. Cross came to Penn State in 1961. "But we’ve known each other since he was in England in the fifties," says Cross. "We have reinforced each other all the way through. All that time we’ve been synergistic, not competitive. We both had the same tutors: George Brindley here at Penn State, and Helen Megaw at Cambridge. Later on we had the opportunity to become well known in ferroelectric materials, with a core group of Brindley, Rustum Roy, Della Roy, Bill White, Newnham and myself. Penn State has by far the largest number of highly cited materials researchers in the country, double the University of Texas, which is second. It’s a wonderful lead that today’s materials researchers at Penn State have been handed, and it was supplied in large part by that original group." In a long collaboration with colleagues and close friends, they developed the underwater sonar transducers, and are responsible for the new generation of medical ultrasound devices.

2.James E. West, Gerhard M. Sessler, Foil Electret Microphone, Blood Pressure Monitoring Transducer and Hospital Noise Control

“The two billion Electret Microphones made each year have transformed the world of acoustics by providing a simple, inexpensive, very linear transducer for telephones, cell phones, microphone arrays, hearing aids, professional measurements, and outer space communications. These applications extend to about every research device and commercial product that needs a microphone. The Electret Microphone is the only transducer in mass production that delivers very linear sound reproduction universally in all applications.” James E. West, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, from Remarks for Medal Recipient of 2006 USA National Medal of Technology and Innovation.

A Long Collaboration of Materials and Electrical Engineering - Gerhard M. Sessler, with James E. West, receives the 2010 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Electrical Engineering for his invention of the electret microphone, the first microphone inexpensive and small enough to allow for cellular phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices. The Franklin Institute’s awards date to 1824. Laureates have included Albert Einstein, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, Pierre and Marie Curie, and the Wright brothers. Jim joined Bell Labs after graduating in 1957. Together with another Bell Labs engineer, Gerhard Sessler, he invented the fluoropolymer foil electret microphone in 1962. This allows the conversion of sound waves into electrical signals with high fidelity. In 2001, about 90% of microphones used this technology.

“Basically the high dielectric constant is accompanies by high dielectric losses”, “When intrinsic or phase responses kill the materials themselves - phase change may affect the quality of materials and products, extrinsic processes and responses were successfully utilized to make the cost-effective system work very well”. Jim holds 47 US and more than 200 foreign patents on microphones and techniques for making polymer foil-electrets. Now at Johns Hopkins, Jim also focuses on noise mitigation inside hospitals, new practices for mitigating hospital interior noise, methods of control and related challenging issues. World Health Organization (WHO) set guidelines for noise levels in hospitals, but in studies most hospital noise levels are as much as 20-40 decibels higher than WHO guidelines.

3.Jerry Posakony, Douglass Howry, and B-mode Ultrasonography (B Mode Ultrasound Scanner)

The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structure in the human body - In physics, the term "ultrasound" applies to all sound waves with a frequency above the audible range of normal human hearing, about 20 kHz. The frequencies used in diagnostic ultrasound are typically between 2 and 18 MHz. Diagnostic sonography (ultrasonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used for visualizing subcutaneous body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible pathology or lesions. Obstetric sonography is commonly used during pregnancy to check on the development of the fetus (Obstetrics and Gynecology OB/GYN) and is widely recognized by the public. Echocardiography is an essential tool in cardiology, to diagnose e.g., dilatation of parts of the heart and function of heart ventricles and valves. B-mode or 2D mode: In B-mode (brightness mode) ultrasound, a linear array of transducers simultaneously scans a plane through the body that can be viewed as a two-dimensional image on screen. More commonly known as 2D mode now. Doppler mode: This mode makes use of the Doppler effect in measuring and visualizing blood flow. Color Doppler: Velocity information is presented as a color coded overlay on top of a B-mode image.

A Long Collaboration of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering - Gerald J Posakony received a BSEE degree in electrical engineering from Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. After working several years as an engineer for Decimeter, Inc. (a small electronics firm in Denver, CO) and as a field engineer for Motorola, Inc., he joined the faculty of the University of Colorado Medical Center as a research engineer. There he conducted pioneering research in medical diagnostic ultrasound with Douglass Howry, William Roderick Bliss and Richard Cushman at the University of Colorado, and produced the first B-mode scanner in the United States. They published their first 2D pictures in 1950. By 1951 Howry, Posakony and Bliss introduced multiposition, or compound, scanning to eliminate "false" echoes and produce better images. A final version, the pan-scanner, was developed at the University of Colorado Medical Center in the late 1950s under a Public Health Service Grant. This scanner, in which a transducer carriage rotated on a semi-circular water-filled pan that was strapped to the patient's body, was developed specifically to eliminate the need for total immersion of ill patients. The pan scanner fabricated by the Holmes, Howry, Posakony and Cushman team in 1957 was a real breakthrough and landmark invention in the history of B-mode ultrasonography. The team’s achievement in visualizing body tissues by ultrasound was commended by the American Medical Association in 1958 at their Scientific Meeting at San Francisco, and the team’s exhibit was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the Association. In 1962, after about two years of work, Joseph Holmes, William Wright, and Ralph Meyerdirk developed the first compound contact B-mode scanner. Their work had been supported by U.S. Public Health Services and the University of Colorado. Wright and Meyerdirk left the University to form Physionic Engineering Inc., which launched the first commercial hand-held articulated arm compound contact B-mode scanner in 1963. This was the start of the most popular design in the history of ultrasound scanners. In the late 1960s Dr. Gene Strandness and the bio-engineering group at the University of Washington conducted research on Doppler ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for vascular disease. Eventually, they developed technologies to use duplex imaging, or Doppler in conjunction with B-mode scanning, to view vascular structures in real-time, while also providing hemodynamic information.

In 1973, Jerry joined the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of nine U.S. Department of Energy multiprogram national laboratories, as manager of the NDE Section. He has spent more than thirty-five years in the design, development and deployment of first-of-a-kind NDE inspection and measurement systems. He has continued personal research in ultrasonic transducers, inspection technology and ultrasonic wave propagation as well as other activities in the field of NDE. Jerry has been honored with 2010 John Fritz Medal by the American Association of Engineering Societies (AAES) for his pioneering contributions to the fields of ultrasonics, medical diagnostic ultrasound and nondestructive evaluation technologies. The John Fritz Medal, the highest American award in the engineering profession, for outstanding scientific or industrial achievements, and the honor, established more than a century ago and given to such innovators as Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, George Westinghouse and Orville Wright.

Jerry has been named the recipient of the 2009 IEEE Honorary Membership “for pioneering contributions in ultrasonic techniques for medical diagnosis and nondestructive evaluation.” Honorary members are elected by the Board of Directors from among those who have rendered meritorious service to humanity in the IEEE’s designated fields of interest and who are not members of the IEEE. Jerry has devoted much of his career to developing important technologies that have touched nearly everyone's life, from medical diagnostics to industrial applications that help ensure product quality and safety.

4.Cadwell Brothers, Cadwell Laboratories, Inc., and Innovative Microprocessor-Controlled Instruments for Neuroelectrophysiology (EMG, EEG, IONM, ECG) and Sleep Diagnostics (PSG, ICU)

John Cadwell, graduated in 1976, University of Washington, physical medicine and rehabilitation, BSEE, MD designed the first microprocessor controlled EMG instrument. In 1979 he and his brother Carl, DDS, formed Cadwell Laboratories, Inc. and began selling their device. Since then, Cadwell has been a leader in the development and manufacture of innovative and reliable instruments for neurophysiology. Many instruments have been providing decades of service to their owners.

Companies begin in a number of different ways. Some companies begin in garages, others in a bedroom, and some, like Cadwell Laboratories Inc, Kennewick, Wash, in a household basement.

Brothers John and Carl Cadwell began Cadwell Laboratories in 1979, a time when most sleep diagnostic machines used an older analog system. John had an idea of taking the technology of a microprocessor-based machine and creating another system that would automatically configure itself for a particular procedure when the user pushed only one or two buttons. His innovation was very well received into the competitive sleep market. Not only could physicians treat more patients in less time, they were able to save money. “It was a unique time in the marketplace,” “The brothers were wise to see that a transition was occurring.”

Cadwell is one of the few privately owned companies in this field that operates in the United States. “We are focused on the needs of our customers and strive to deliver features that simplify complex tasks. Many of our larger competitors have diverse product lines; ours is synergistic and focused on the neurology and sleep marketplace. This is what we do every day.”

Cadwell Laboratories is a family-owned company managed by brothers Carl and John Cadwell. Numerous patents are held by Cadwell, including those for magnetic stimulators, cable shielding designs, neural network analysis of EEG and database designs. In 1979, John Cadwell and his brother, Dr. Carl Cadwell, DDS, formed Cadwell Laboratories Inc. and began selling the device. Since then, Cadwell has been a leader in the development and manufacture of innovative and reliable instruments for neurophysiology. Today, still located in Kennewick, Washington, John and Carl continue ownership of the company and come to work everyday to develop and market products ranging from EMG to EEG to PSG to IONM instrumentation and ICU more. Cadwell has a firm hold of its identity and a dedicated focus on neurophysiology. Advancing medical technology to help you, help others.

Neuroelectrophysiology - Neurophysiology is the study of nervous system function. The primary tools of basic neurophysiological research include electrophysiological recordings such as patch clamp and calcium imaging, as well as some of the common tools of molecular biology. Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart. In neuroscience, it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and particularly action potential activity. Recordings of large-scale electric signals from the nervous system such as electroencephalography may also be referred to as electrophysiological recordings.

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) describes a group of procedures used during surgery to monitor neural pathways during high-risk neurosurgical, orthopedic, peripheral nerve, and vascular surgeries. These procedures assist surgeons in preventing damage and preserving functionality of the nervous system. There are two types of IONM: techniques used to identify impending damage to the nervous system, and techniques used to map the structures of the nervous system.

Polysomnography (PSG), also known as a sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine. Polysomnography / Sleep Diagnostics is a comprehensive recording of the biophysiological changes that occur during sleep. It is usually performed at night, when most people sleep, though some labs can accommodate shift workers and people with circadian rhythm sleep disorders and do the test at other times of day. The PSG monitors many body functions including brain (EEG), eye movements (EOG), muscle activity or skeletal muscle activation (EMG) and heart rhythm (ECG) during sleep. After the identification of the sleep disorder sleep apnea in the 1970s, the breathing functions respiratory airflow and respiratory effort indicators were added along with peripheral pulse oximetry. Polysomnography is used to diagnose, or rule out, many types of sleep disorders including narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), REM behavior disorder, parasomnias, and sleep apnea. It is often ordered for patients with complaints of daytime fatigue or sleepiness that may be caused by interrupted sleep. Although it is not directly useful in diagnosing circadian rhythm sleep disorders, it may be used to rule out other sleep disorders.

Electroencephalogram (EEG); Electrooculogram (EOG); Electromyogram (EMG); Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) – Common equipment and systems in an ICU includes mechanical ventilators to assist breathing through an endotracheal tube or a tracheotomy; cardiac monitors including those with telemetry; external pacemakers; defibrillators; dialysis equipment for renal problems; equipment for the constant monitoring of bodily functions; a web of intravenous lines, feeding tubes, nasogastric tubes, suction pumps, drains, and catheters; and a wide array of drugs to treat the primary condition(s) of hospitalization. Medically induced comas, analgesics, and induced sedation are common ICU tools needed and used to reduce pain and prevent secondary infections.

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