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“Built-in Pre-Charged Materials: From Microphone to Battery and Vice Versa”?- for 50 years of the development of foil electret microphone of Bell Laboratories (1962-2012)

The research of James Edward West and Gerhard Sessler in the early 1960s led to the development of foil-electret transducers for sound recording and voice communication that are used in 90% of all microphones built today and at the heart of most new telephones being manufactured. James Edward West along with Gerhard Sessler found the proper pre-charged polymer foils with built-in battery concept and patented (#3,118,022) the electret microphone in 1964 while working at Bell Laboratories. The new microphone became widely used because of its high performance, accuracy, and reliability, in addition to its low cost, small size, and light weight.

“The two billion electret microphones made each year have transformed the world of acoustics by providing a simple, inexpensive, very linear transducer for telephones, cell phones, microphone arrays, hearing aids, professional measurements, and outer space communications. These applications extend to about every research device and commercial product that needs a microphone. The electret microphone is the only transducer in mass production that delivers very linear sound reproduction universally in all applications.” James E. West, from Remarks for Medal Recipient of 2006 USA National Medal of Technology and Innovation and 2010 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Electrical Engineering.

The discovery of new charged materials, electrophysical or electrochemical charging methods, and charging processes, as well as charge and discharge mechanisms understanding, continues leading to the applications of new charged materials for components development of the span of modern electret microphones (integrated,iPhone, μPhone)and electro-acoustic transducers for telecommunications, pre-charged transistor circuits (integrated,IC,μC) and diode junctions for modern electronics and solar cells, built-in (integrated,iBatt, μBatt) secondary cells and batteries for energy storage systems. Looking back to 1962, scientific meaning of built-in integration concept and 50 years for engineering applications even continue telling us the potential business development of innovations and three special industrial success stories of telecommunications, electronics and energy.

(本新闻咨询资料由公司储能换能产品部 (Energy Storage and Conversion Product Department) 提供。)


From Analog ECM (Electret Condenser Microphone) to Integrated Digital ECM and Transducer Proprietary Production

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8021525
http://jap.aip.org/resource/1/japiau/v100/i11/p114512_s1?isAuthorized=no
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adfm.200600690/abstract

http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=842727
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8214744
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4827373&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F4816218%2F4827289%2F04827373.pdf%3Farnumber%3D4827373

KK9.49 Electroactive Materials and Systems Development of Rechargeable Lithium-Carbon Batteries (LCB),
http://www.mrs.org/f10program-kk/

Electret microphone replacement for a carbon insert of Thomas Alva Edison’s carbon microphone and battery
On-Cell 外挂式触控技术 (单片式玻璃触控方案One-Glass-Solution (OGS) or Touch-On-Lens (TOL) Touch Screen Panel Sensor Technology using a single piece of glass as both cover lens and sensor substrate

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